13 July 2024

Kaliberda and colleagues 2024

Kaliberda A, Marenkov O, Kaliberda N. 2024. The use of albuvir to produce a life-sustaining young crayfish. In: Modern Scientific and Technical Research in the Context of Linguistic Space (in English): Conference materials of the III All-Ukrainian scientific and practical conference of young scholars and students. 355 pp. Dnipro: Bila K. O. https://www.dnu.dp.ua/docs/ndc/2024/materiali_konferenc/13.pdf#page=18

Abstract

(First paragraph only.) 

 

Marbled crayfish or Marmorkrebs (Procambarus virginalis) is a perspective species in aquaculture and water areas because a single individual is only needed to establish a new population, and they can reproduce athletes. Therefore, it is important to clarify the biological aspects of its breeding and the influence of biological additives «Albuvir» on the young generation`s vitality. Albuvir is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. The drug is a composition of acidic peptides capable of self-organization and
self-adaptation in the body. Their mechanism is based on the blockade of nuclear import peptides and prevents import from the viral genome from crossing the nuclear membrane. An interesting detail is that adaptation to the drug is impossible for the virus and for the animal organism because the drug is a quasi-living self-organizing system and its composite pharmacophore is unique for each animal and virus. Marbled crayfish is reproduced by means of parthenogenesis – an asexual reproduction in which a female can produce an embryo without fertilizing an egg with sperm. As a result, their offspring is genetically identical, which makes this species is the best research object.

 

Keywords: None provided.

Heinz and Wenninger, 2024

Cover of "Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine" featuring a cat.
Heinz J, Wenninger M. 2024. Evaluation of immersion in emulsified isoflurane or propofol as part of a two-step euthanasia protocol in marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 55(2): 424-429. https://doi.org/10.1638/2023-0137

Abstract

The marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) is a parthenogenetic invasive species across much of the world, and when found, euthanasia is often recommended to reduce spread to naïve ecosystems. Euthanasia recommendations in crustaceans includes a two-step method: first to produce nonresponsiveness and then to destroy central nervous tissue. Minimal data exist on adequate anesthetic or immobilization methods for crayfish. A population of 90 marbled crayfish was scheduled for euthanasia due to invasive species concerns. The population was divided into six treatment groups to evaluate whether immersion in emulsified isoflurane or propofol solutions could produce nonresponsiveness. Each group was exposed to one of six treatments for 1 h: isoflurane emulsified at 0.1%, 0.5%, 2%, 5%, and 15% or propofol at 10 mg/L and then increased to 100 mg/L. Crayfish from all treatment groups were moved to nonmedicated water after completion of 1 h and observed for an additional 4 h. All crayfish treated with isoflurane showed lack of a righting reflex at 5 min and loss of movement after 30 min. By 240 min (4 h), none of the crayfish from the isoflurane treatment groups regained movement. None of the crayfish in the propofol treatment achieved loss of reflexes or responsiveness, and all remained normal upon return to nonmedicated water. Isoflurane emulsified in water produces nonresponsiveness that is appropriate for the first step of euthanasia, while propofol was insufficient at these treatment doses.


Keywords: None provided.

Das and colleagues 2024

Scientific ReportsDas K, Roy K, Mráz J,  Buřič M, Kouba A. 2024. Considerations for fatty acids in standardized reference diet for parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis model organism. Scientific Reports 14: 15933. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-024-66268-7

Abstract

Fatty acid accumulation was studied in the parthenogenetic all-female marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis using six arbitrarily designed experimental feeds and related to individuals with glair glands (sexual maturity) after 100 days of ad libitum feeding at 21°C, including gravid females from the wild as a reference. Fatty acids 16:0 and 18:1n-9 comprised 40% of the total amount of fatty acids and tended to up-concentrate in bodies. Shorter chain 14:0 depleted from feed to body. Across diets, there was a concomitant decrease in precursor fatty acid and increase in product fatty acid, such as reinforcements in monounsaturated fatty acid (18:1n-9), eicosanoid precursors 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid, ARA) and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA) in-vivo, but not 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) except when deficient in CHI or CHI + SPI diets. Saturation kinetics modeling (R2 0.7–0.9, p < 0.05) showed that when the ARA share is ~ 1%, the EPA share is ~ 8%, and the DHA share is ~ 2% in the food lipids, the accumulation of fatty acids in body lipids levels off. The lowest DHA in the CHI (0% glair glands) or CHI + SPI (0–3.9% glair glands) diets, and the lowest ARA in SER (0% glair glands) or SER + SPI (0–3% glair glands) diets, were synchronous with negligible sexual maturity despite a wide range of observed specific growth rates (2.77–3.60% per day), body size (0.44–0.84 g), ≤ 5% crude lipid and 40–46% crude protein feed. The FISH and SHRIMP diets (56% protein, 11–14% lipid) with the highest ARA, EPA, and DHA together seem to be the most conducive diets for sexual maturity (up to 20% of individuals with glair glands). We propose a fatty acid profile mimicking the FISH or SHRIMP diets as a starting point for designing the lipid content required in the marbled crayfish standardized reference diet.


Keywords: None provided.

Open access



24 May 2024

Burggren and colleagues 2024

Cover to "Physiology" journal supplement.
Burggren W, Martinez Bautista G, Göpel T, Padilla P. 2024. Lack of genetic variation in low heterozygosity and clonal animals creates lack of physiological variation. Physiology 39:S1. https://doi.org/10.1152/physiol.2024.39.S1.1477

Abstract

Data variability frequently complicates reproducibility and interpretation of experimental results. Such variability arises from numerous sources such as differences in procedures or not accounting for key biological factors (e.g. sex, biological rhythms, prandial state). Making the situation more problematic, variation in physiological performance is often viewed as highly labile, easily and rapidly influenced by environmental stressors, development, etc., making it diffcult to pin down a source for variation. Undeniably, however, unknown (or ignored) genetic variation among and within strains/lines can also be a significant source of data variability in published physiological measurements, though surprisingly this has not been extensively investigated as a specific source of physiological variation. We hypothesized that variation in physiological performance is correlated with the intrinsic degree of genetic variability of the subject animal. To test this hypothesis, we employed two animal models: 1) Inbred lines (e.g., NHGRI-1) derived from wild type strains of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), with an estimated 15% of the genetic heterozygosity of wild type AB zebrafish, and 2) the parthenogenetically reproducing marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis), all specimens of which are genetically identical clones. For these two animal models, we measured both physiological variables (e.g. heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, oxygen consumption) and morphological variables (e.g. yolk-chorion ratio, body mass, embryo mass, total length, condition factor, specific growth rate) during development. We subjected the two animal models to environmental stress in the form of both temperature and hypoxia to stimulate physiological responses that could be compared and contrasted among populations. From these data we then calculated the resultant coeffcients of variation for measured variables for wild type and low/zero heterozygosity populations and/or species. In zebrafish, both the wildtype AB and NHRGI-1 lines showed similar developmental trajectories characterized by similar mean values for physiological and morphological variables. Additionally, similar mean values for physiological and morphological variables were recorded in the face of temperature and hypoxia challenge. Yet, importantly, the coeffcient of variation for each measured variable was significantly lower in NHGRI-1 than AB larvae for >90% of the assessed endpoints. In the clonal crayfish, genetically identical early stage marbled crayfish reared in different temperatures or oxygen levels show major acclimation responses, but generally showed less morphological and physiological variation about the mean than sexually-reproducing species crayfish with inherently much greater genetic variation, as evident from comparisons of calculated coeffcients of variation. A key question regarding the clonal crayfish is how can there be any morphological or physiological variation between individuals? We suggest that variability that persists may arise from microenvironmental differences during rearing (e.g. egg position during incubation on the mother’s pleon) and/or stochastic differences in gene expression (e.g. due to random epimutations) in this clonal species. In conclusion, genetic diversity clearly contributes to physiological variability. For future experiments, low heterozygosity lines and/or clonal species may be useful for decreasing inter-individual variation, thus aiding interpretation of results and enhancing reproducibility. In any event, scientific documentation of physiological studies should include as much information on (genetic) background of the experimental animals as possible.

Keywords: None provided.

Note: This is the full abstract presented at the American Physiology Summit 2024 meeting. There are no additional versions or additional content available for this abstract.

Sánchez and colleagues 2024

Cover to Evology and Evolution, Volume 4, number 5.
Sánchez O, Oficialdegui FJ, Torralba-Burrial A, Arbesú R, Valle-Artaza JM, Fernández-González Á, Ardura A, Arias A. Procambarus virginalis Lyko, 2017: A new threat to Iberian inland waters. Ecology and Evolution 14(5): e11362. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.11362

Abstract

An eco-monitoring programme to assess faunal biodiversity in the main rivers of the northern Iberian Peninsula (Spain) reveals the first occurrence of the marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in Iberian inland waters. Iberian specimens have been identified by combining morphological and genetic traits. We discuss the most plausible pathways and introduction vectors, its potential invasiveness and subsequent impacts on host localities. Our preliminary results raise concern about the potential threat of P. virginalis to native fauna and ecosystem dynamics, as P. virginalis was found in an area of great cultural and ecological importance with relevant populations of endangered species. Due to the invasive history of the marbled crayfish, eradication of these individuals is urgent. This study confirms the importance of early warning systems for exotic species, keeping the population, forest guards and field technicians informed about potential invasive species to execute a rapid and effective response.  

Keywords: None provided.

Open access


28 April 2024

Marmorkrebs on Great Lakes Now

The first ten minutes of this video from Great Lakes Now is an excellent mini-documentary on the discovery of Marmorkrebs in North America and steps taken to try to eliminate it.

There’s also a short news article.

External links

Warning waters and mutant crayfish

Marbled crayfish raises eyebrows, and concerns

08 April 2024

Yanai and colleagues 2024

BioInvasion Records cover
Yanai Z, Guy-Haim T, Kolodny O, Levitt-Barmats Ya, Mazal A, Morov AR, Sagi A, Truskanov N, Milstein D. 2024. An overview of recent introductions of non-native crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda) into inland water systems in Israel. BioInvasions Records 13(1): 195-208. https://doi.org/10.3391/bir.2024.13.1.17

Abstract

Crayfish are known to effectively invade freshwater systems worldwide. Whilst no native crayfish species exist in Israel, three exotic species have been documented in recent years, and their introduction details are hereby discussed. Three of these introduction events, one of each species, were previously reported; one was established, one failed to establish, and the third was successfully eradicated. However, more recently, invasive crayfish have been independently detected multiple times, involving a variety of natural and artificial habitats. Altogether, three invasive crayfish species currently inhabit Israeli freshwaters: Cherax quadricarinatus, Procambarus clarkii, and Procambarus virginalis. They were found in fourteen independent cases, and at least five of them represent established populations. Similar to other crayfish invasions around the globe, we speculate that the invasive populations in Israel result from the intentional release of aquarium inhabitants, as well as from aquaculture escapees. The import and trade policy of aquatic organisms in Israel requires thorough revision to prevent future invasions. Thought should also be given to the prevention of the spread of the existing invasive populations as well as to their eradication, if possible.

KeywordsCherax quadricarinatusProcambarus clarkiiProcambarus virginalis • aquarium release • invasive species • Levant

Open access