01 September 2020

Hossain and colleagues, 2021

Science of the Total Environment cover

Hossain MS, Kubec J, Guo W, Roje S, Ložek F, Grabicová K, Randák T, Kouba A, Buřič M. 2021. A combination of six psychoactive pharmaceuticals at environmental concentrations alter the locomotory behavior of clonal marbled crayfish. Science of The Total Environment 751: 141383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141383

Abstract

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment worldwide and considered emerging contaminants. Their effects on growth, behavior, and physiological processes of aquatic organisms have been identified even at very low concentrations. Ecotoxicological investigations have primarily focused on single compound exposure, generally at a range of concentrations. In the natural environment, pollutants seldom occur in isolation, but little is known about the effects and risks of combinations of chemicals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of concurrent exposure to six psychoactive PhACs on locomotory behavior and life history traits of clonal marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis. Crayfish were exposed to ~1 μg L−1 of the antidepressants sertraline, citalopram, and venlafaxine; the anxiolytic oxazepam; the opioid tramadol; and the widely abused psychostimulant methamphetamine. In the absence of shelter, exposed crayfish moved significantly shorter distances and at lower velocity and showed significantly less activity than controls. With available shelter, exposed crayfish moved significantly more distance, showed higher activity, and spent a significantly more time outside the shelter than controls. Molting, mortality, and spawning frequency did not vary significantly between the groups. Hemolymph glucose level did not vary among groups and was not correlated with observed behaviors. Results suggest that environmental concentrations of the tested compounds in combination can alter the behavior of non-target aquatic organisms as individual exposure of these compounds, which may lead to disruption of ecosystem processes due to their reduced caution in stressful conditions. Further research is needed using varied chemical mixtures, exposure systems, and habitats, considering molecular and physiological processes connected to behavior alterations.

Keywords: antidepressant • ethology • emerging contaminant • opioid • Procambarus virginalis

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