01 September 2015

Chucholl, 2016

Chucholl C. 2016. Marbled crayfish gaining ground in Europe: the role of the pet trade as invasion pathway. In: T Kawai, Z Faulkes, G Scholtz, eds. Freshwater Crayfish: A Global Overview, pp. 83-114. Boca Raton: CRC Press. https://www.crcpress.com/Freshwater-Crayfish-A-Global-Overview/Kawai-Faulkes-Scholtz/9781466586390

Excerpt

In this chapter, knowledge on this novel and on-going pathway for alien crayfish species introductions will be reviewed. In line with the other chapters in this section, emphasis will be placed on the marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis Martin et al. 2010). The history of the marbled crayfish is inseparably tied to the aquarium trade, which introduced this species to the scientific world and which, at the time of this writing, is still the only known ‘natural habitat’ of marbled crayfish.

Keywords: None provided.

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Kawai and colleagues (editors), 2016

25 August 2015

Martin, 2016

Martin P. 2016. Parthenogenesis: mechanisms, evolution, and its relevance to the role of marbled crayfish as model organism and potential invader. In: T Kawai, Z Faulkes, G Scholtz, eds. Freshwater Crayfish: A Global Overview, pp. 63-82. Boca Raton: CRC Press. https://www.crcpress.com/Freshwater-Crayfish-A-Global-Overview/Kawai-Faulkes-Scholtz/9781466586390

Excerpt

This chapter deals with the question of what is behind the often misinterpreted term parthenogenesis and what effect it has on marbled crayfish. It starts with a general overview about the mechanisms and genetic consequences of sexual reproductive systems and several different asexual ones. This is followed by a section on the origin of parthenogenesis in animals, its short-term benefits and long-term disadvantages, from the perspective of the evolutionary theory of sex. Then, the current state of knowledge on the extraordinary reproduction mode of marbled crayfish and the presumed cause for its emergence is described. Finally, the possibilities for this crustacean as laboratory animal and its ecological impacts resulting from parthenogenesis are discussed.

Keywords: None provided.

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Kawai and colleagues (editors), 2016

24 August 2015

Vogt and colleagues, 2015

Vogt G, Falckenhayn C, Schrimpf A, Schmid K, Hanna K, Panteleit J, Helm M, Schulz R, Lyko F. 2015. The marbled crayfish as a paradigm for saltational speciation by autopolyploidy and parthenogenesis in animals. BioRxiv: 23 August 2015.

Abstract

The parthenogenetic all-female marbled crayfish is a novel research model and potent invader of freshwater ecosystems. It is a triploid descendant of the sexually reproducing slough crayfish, Procambarus fallax, but its taxonomic status has remained unsettled. By cross-breeding experiments and parentage analysis we show here that marbled crayfish and P. fallax are reproductively separated. Both crayfish copulate readily, suggesting that the reproductive barrier is set at the cytogenetic rather than the behavioural level. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes of marbled crayfish from laboratory lineages and wild populations demonstrates genetic identity and indicates a single origin. Flow cytometric comparison of DNA contents of haemocytes and analysis of nuclear microsatellite loci confirm triploidy and suggest autopolyploidization as its cause. Global DNA methylation is significantly reduced in marbled crayfish implying the involvement of molecular epigenetic mechanisms in its origination. Morphologically, both crayfish are very similar but growth and fecundity are considerably larger in marbled crayfish, making it a different animal with superior fitness. These data and the high probability of a divergent future evolution of the marbled crayfish and P. fallax clusters suggest that marbled crayfish should be considered as an independent asexual species. Our findings also establish the P. fallax-marbled crayfish pair as a novel paradigm for rare chromosomal speciation by autopolyploidy and parthenogenesis in animals and for saltational evolution in general.

Keywords: None provided.

20 August 2015

Kenning and colleagues, 2015

Kenning M, Lehmann P, Lindstrom M, Harzsch S. 2015. Heading which way? Y-maze chemical assays: not all crustaceans are alike. Helgoland Marine Research 69(3): 305-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10152-015-0435-6

Abstract

In a world full of chemicals, many crustaceans rely on elaborate olfactory systems to guide behaviors related to finding food or to assess the presence of conspecifics and predators. We analyzed the responses of the isopod Saduria entomon to a range of stimuli by which the animal is likely to encounter in its natural habitat using a Y-maze bioassay. In order to document the efficiency of the experimental design, the same bioassay was used to test the behavior of the crayfish Procambarus fallax whose ability to track odors is well documented. The crayfish performed well in the Y-maze and were able to locate the source of a food-related odor with high fidelity. The isopod S. entomon reacted indifferently or with aversion to most of the stimuli applied. In 1800 trials, only four out of 15 different stimuli yielded statistically significant results, and only one odorant was found to be significantly attractive. The findings raise several questions whether the stimuli presented and/or the experimental setup used represents an ecologically relevant situation for S. entomon. In each instance, our experiments illustrate that established methods cannot be readily transferred from one species to another.

Keywords: Isopoda • Saduria entomon • Decapoda • crayfish • olfaction • behavior • flow channel

Harzsch and colleagues, 2015

Harzsch S, Krieger J, Faulkes Z. 2015. “Crustacea”: Decapoda – Astacida. In: A Wanninger (ed.), Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 4: Ecdysozoa II: Crustacea, pp. 101-151. Springer: New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-1853-5_4

Abstract

Thomas Henry Huxley, now often remembered as “Darwin’s bulldog”, wrote an entire book dedicated to crayfish, with no less a goal than showing how the study of crayfish could teach the reader all of zoology: “how the careful study of one of the commonest and most insignificant of animals, leads us, step by step, from every-day knowledge to the widest generalizations and the most difficult problems”. In retrospect, Huxley laid out the argument for model organisms several decades before another Thomas, namely, Thomas Hunt Morgan, started using fruit flies as model organisms, which became a wellspring of biological information in the twentieth century. While biology in the nineteenth century emphasised work on diverse species in the field, biology in the twentieth century was driven by a few model organisms in the lab, whether they were rats or fruit flies or Arabidopsis thaliana.

Keywords: None provided.

18 August 2015

Kaldre and colleagues, 2016

Kaldre K, Meženin A, Paaver T, Kawai T. 2016. A preliminary study on the tolerance of marble crayfish Procambarus fallax f. virginalis to low temperature in Nordic climate. In: T Kawai, Z Faulkes, G Scholtz, eds. Freshwater Crayfish: A Global Overview, pp. 54-62. Boca Raton: CRC Press. https://www.crcpress.com/Freshwater-Crayfish-A-Global-Overview/Kawai-Faulkes-Scholtz/9781466586390

Excerpt

Temperatures in Nordic countries’ water bodies are much lower during winter, but there is no information about whether marble crayfish can survive temperatures as low as those experienced in Nordic countries, which is relevant to whether the marble crayfish can invade northern Europe. In this chapter we discuss the low temperature tolerance of marble crayfish as a factor in the potential invasion of marble crayfish in Nordic European countries.

Keywords: None provided.

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Kawai and colleagues (editors), 2016

11 August 2015

Yazicioglu and Kozák, 2014

Yazicioglu B, Kozák P. 2014. What do we know about reproduction of crayfish? Poster presented at FABA 2014: International Symposium on Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Trabzon, Turkey, September 2014. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280620396_What_do_we_know_about_reproduction_of_crayfish

Abstract

Study of the reproductive strategy of indigenous and non-indigenous crayfish species is of a great importance in the current astacological world. Crayfish are the largest aquatic invertebrates, and as a keystone species, they are capable of controlling the structure of the benthic fauna in the lake and stream ecosystems, demonstrating different ecological strategy and life span varying from Astacus leptodactylus, Austropotamobius torrentium, Austropotamobius pallipes, Procambarus clarkii and Pacifastacus leniusculus. However, the most recent information has revealed a few species that may have different models of reproduction, such as hermaphroditism, intersex (Cherax quadricarinatus, Samastacus spinifrons) and parthenogenesis (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis). In addition, there are many studies devoted to investigation of reproduction biology under various lab conditions. Present contribution covers all mentioned above topics, illustrates known among crayfish reproduction patterns, and summarizes published research articles from the past 20 years and until now.

Keywords: None provided.