Velisek J, Stara A, Zuskova E, Kouba A. 2017. Effects of three triazine metabolites and their mixture at environmentally relevant concentrations on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis). Chemosphere 175: 440-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.080
The sensitivity of early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) to chronic exposure of one out of three triazine metabolites (terbuthylazine 2-hydroxy – T2H, terbuthylazine-desethyl – TD, and atrazine 2-hydroxy – A2H) and their mixture at maximal environmentally real concentrations was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The effects were assessed on the basis of mortality, growth, development, oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzymes activity and histopathology. Single metabolites (T2H – 0.73 μg/L; TD – 1.80 μg/L; A2H – 0.66 μg/L) and their mixture were not associated with negative effects on mortality, behaviour and early ontogeny, however, two metabolites (TD and A2H) and mixtures caused significantly lower growth and significantly higher catalase activity of early life stages of marbled crayfish. No histopathological changes of gills were observed after exposure to all tested triazine treatments, however, apparent histological differences in structural cells organization such as superiority in numbers of lipid resorptive cells were recorded in after exposition to TD and mixture. In conclusion, this study shows potential risk of using triazine herbicides in agriculture due to effects of their degradation products on non-target organisms.
Keywords: antioxidant enzyme • developmental stage • histopathology • oxidative stress • toxicity test