Shen H, Braband A, Scholtz G. 2015. The complete mitogenomes of lobsters and crayfish (Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidea) reveal surprising differences in closely related taxa and convergences to Priapulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 53(4): 273–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jzs.12106
We sequenced the complete mitogenomes of three species of Decapoda, Astacidea, comprising Astacida (freshwater crayfish) and Homarida (marine clawed lobsters): 1. Procambarus fallax f. virginalis (Astacida, Astacoidea), 2. Homarus gammarus (Homarida, Nephropoidea) and 3. Enoplometopus occidentalis (Homarida, Enoplometopoidea). Together with the available species in GenBank, the taxon Astacidea is covered with at least one representative for each of the four main subtaxa. Astacidea show unexpectedly diverse genomic organizations. Ten different gene arrangements have been observed in the 28 investigated species. Compared with the decapod ground pattern, a huge inversion, involving more than half of the mitogenome, has been found in four freshwater crayfish species of Astacoidea and convergently in one lobster species. Surprisingly, this inversion can also be observed in the distantly related Priapulida. This multiple convergent evolution suggests a relative ease in the evolution of great similarities in mitochondrial gene order. In addition, a partial or complete loss of the protein-coding gene nad2 has been found in E. occidentalis and H. gammarus but not in Nephrops norvegicus, Homarus americanus and Enoplometopus debelius. A reversal of the strand asymmetry has been found in five astacideans which is supposed to be caused by the inversion of a replication origin in the control region.
Keywords: gene order • convergent evolution • gene inversion • nad2 • strand reversal